The Conservative heavyweight was accused of having a “ridiculous” record on climate change as he was brought back into the Cabinet.
Ms Lucas pointed to a vote in July 2015 – when Mr Gove backed a bill to put a tax dubbed the ‘climate change levy’ on renewably-generated electricity.
“This is not someone who has any understanding of the severity of climate change,” she told Sky News.
“If he did, he wouldn’t be doing things like putting a levy that was meant to be on fossil fuels instead on renewable energy.
“That’s like putting an alcohol tax on fruit juice. It’s a ridiculous thing to do. A man who has blocked more ambitious environmental legislation at every turn.
“I think there is absolutely no evidence that he has any real understanding of this issue.”
She accused Mr Gove of seeing it as a “nuisance” instead.
The vote, part of the 2015 Spring Budget, passed with a majority of 248. It was backed overwhelmingly by Conservative MPs.
Mr Gove said the day after his appointment: “It’s a tremendous opportunity as Environment Secretary to do a job at the heart of Government, making sure we enhance one of our greatest assets – our countryside.
“And I want to do everything I can to make sure we pass on the environment in a stronger condition to the next generation.”
Mr Gove replaced Andrea Leadsom in the post-election cabinet reshuffle, an otherwise minor affair that saw the top five posts unchanged.
Some have speculated privately it was a tactical manoeuvre by Mrs May to block any leadership challenges against her.
Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson was reported to be considering running for the top job after a disappointing election result for the Conservatives.
But he denied all such claims as “tripe” and urged colleagues to “calm down and get behind the Prime Minister”.